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By Jerry Griswold

In films and stories, we are often drawn close to animals but only those of certain species. The documentaries of Jane Goodall about her work with chimpanzees in Gombe make us more sympathetic to our simian cousins, as does Curious George. The film “Never Cry Wolf” shows a scientist living with a wolf pack, and we begin to feel as kindly disposed to our lupine brothers as Mowgli does in The Jungle Books. And it not a far distance from the nonfiction of “Born Free” to the story of “The Lion King.” On the other hand, there are other creatures we are not especially attentive to: snails and lizards and doves, for instance.

To identify those species we feel close to, all a zoologist need do is conduct a census of animals in children’s stories. That would reveal a startlingly fact about the way Kidsworld differs from our own world: among the young and in children’s literature, every tenth animal seems to be a bear. In fact, a literary zoologist would note what appears to be a population explosion among minors of ursus major: blacks, browns, polars, grizzlies, pandas, and teddies.

What accounts for this? Why, for example, are the young more inclined to carry around teddy bears than, say, stuffed geckos or upholstered cows? And why are there so many stories about teddies: Paddington, Corduroy, Winnie the Pooh, Care Bears, Berenstain’s Bears, and more? To be sure, having lent his name to this stuffed creature, President Teddy Roosevelt bears some responsibility for the naming of the “teddy”; but even before these furry replicas came to bear his name, youngsters carried around baby bruins as if totems of their tribe.

GrizzwoldOf course, we should note that--bare naked, in its five-pointed-star shape--the stuffed bear fuzzily resembles our own bodies. And unlike other creatures, and as dancing bears at circuses reveal, these animals are also like us in being fuzzily upright. And for the young who seek the satisfaction of snuggling grown-ups, the fur-covered teddy is--well, fuzzy. There is, in other words, a simple explanation for the overpopulation of bears in Kidsworld: the bear presents a “fuzzy” version of ourselves.

That “fuzziness” permits the child to think the “same only different,” to understand something under the guise of marginal difference. Take “Goldilocks.” When she samples the three chairs, porridges, and beds, Goldilocks discovers that Papa Bear’s items are not right and that Mama Bear’s don’t suit; only Baby Bear’s chair, porridge, and bed are perfect. As psychologist Bruno Bettelheim suggests, this story teaches the child two things: that there are roles in the family and just what theirs is. And, we might add, it does so by means of bears.

Among the best stories featuring this creature are the “Little Bear” books by Else Homelund Minarik and illustrated by Maurice Sendak. In the first of these, Little Bear dresses to play outside, makes a “birthday soup,” plays at being an astronaut traveling to the moon, and is put to sleep by Mother Bear. Replace bears with humans and the story would read no differently. But that slight difference and animal substitution is vital because it allows the child to understand by means of analogy. “Animals are good to think with,” the anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss once said. Bears especially, we might add.

The Teddy Bear PicnicAnother honeyed story of this kind is The Teddy Bears’ Picnic, based on the song by Jimmy Kennedy (made famous in a 1950 recording by Bing Crosby) and illustrated by Alexandra Day. In Day’s visual interpretation of the lyrics, a boy and girl don bear disguises, travel to the forest to see the secret of how teddies picnic, then–at the song’s conclusion (“At six o’clock their mummys and daddys will taken them home to bed / Because they’re tired little teddy bears”)–their parents (also dressed as bears) help their offspring out of their costumes and to bed.

Inside every childhood bear, in other words, is a human. It may be a handsome prince, in the case of the fairy tales “East of the Sun, West of the Moon” and “Snow White and Rose Red.” It may be a teacher, like Mowgli’s Baloo in The Jungle Books or the Panda in Jon Muth’s Zen Shorts. Whatever the case, beneath the bear’s fuzziness is us–only different. This is something to bear in mind. Indeed, as countless children’s stories reveal, it bears repeating.


Little BearBear Essentials

Little Bear is only the first in a series of easy-reader (ages 4-8) “Little Bear” books by Maurice Sendak and Else Holmelund Minarik. Look for an entire list on Amazon.

Sendak has also recently illustrated Bear, based on a story by Ruth Krauss
Ages: 4 - 8 yrs.
HarperCollins, $14.95 (Hardcover).

The Teddy Bears’ Picnic

Ages: 4 - 8 yrs.
By: Jimmy Kennedy; Illustrated by Alexandra Day
Aladdin: $6.95 (Paperback)

By making use of Amazon’s “Advanced Search” features, and entering the subject “bears” as well as a particular reader age, you can gather a list of close of some 3000 children’s titles featuring bears. Among these, let me mention some special favorites:

The Bear
A beautiful, oversized picture book about a boy’s companion

Ages: 4 - 8 yrs.
By: Raymond Briggs
Jonathan Cape, $12.59 (Hardcover)

Blueberries for SalBlueberries for Sal
Offspring are exchanged when a girl and her mother, as well as a bear and her cub, go berry picking

Ages: 4 - 8 yrs.
By: Robert McCloskey
Puffin: $7.99 (Paperback)

If I do say so, a delightfully named story of a “grizzly” in search of his “world”
Ages: 4 - 8 yrs.
By: Syd Hoff
HarperTrophy: $3.99 (Paperback)


About the Author
Jerry Griswold is the Director of San Diego State University's National Center for the Study of Children's Literature. His next book is Feeling Like a Kid: Childhood and Children’s Literature.


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